Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad


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The Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad, often abbreviated as just the "Santa Fe," was one of the largest railroads in the United States.In 1859, it was chartered in Kansas as the Atchison & Topeka Railroad Company for building a rail line from Topeka, Kansas, to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and then on to the Gulf of Mexico. The railroad exercised great influence on the settlement of the southwestern United States.Cyrus K. Holliday, a Topeka lawyer and business promoter, founded the railroad along the Santa Fe Trail - a 19th-century trading route. He was also the first president of the railroad, as well as one of its directors for nearly 40 years (1860-1900).During his years as railroad president, Holliday secured land grants from the federal government that would soon be used by the railroad to populate the western portion of Kansas.The railroad changed its name to the Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad in 1863, and it opened to traffic in 1864. By the early 1890s the Santa Fe, with its nearly 9,000 miles of track and connections to Chicago and Los Angeles, it became one of the world`s longest railroad systems.The railroad increased its holdings in the 20th century. A holding company, Santa Fe Industries, was created in the 1960s for the railroad and various subsidiaries.Santa Fe Industries decided to merge with the Southern Pacific Company to form Santa Fe Southern Pacific Corporation in 1983. But the Interstate Commerce Commission blocked the proposed merger of the two railroads.After defeating a hostile takeover attempt, the company sold the Southern Pacific Transportation Company (1988), Kirby Forest Industries (1986), and Robert E. McKee (1987).Many pipeline and energy subsidiaries were sold or their securities were distributed to stockholders.In 1989, the railroad emerged as a part of the newly named Santa Fe Pacific Corporation, which later merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad in 1995, and became the Burlington Northern Sante Fe Railway.


History of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway

In 1859, Cyrus K. Holliday envisioned a railroad that would run from Kansas to the Pacific, increasing the commerce and prosperity of the nation. With farsighted investors and shrewd management, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad grew from Holliday&aposs idea into a model of the modern, rapid, and efficient railroad. There were many growing pains. Rustlers, thieves, an In 1859, Cyrus K. Holliday envisioned a railroad that would run from Kansas to the Pacific, increasing the commerce and prosperity of the nation. With farsighted investors and shrewd management, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad grew from Holliday's idea into a model of the modern, rapid, and efficient railroad. There were many growing pains. Rustlers, thieves, and desperadoes were as thick as the cattle in Kansas when the first rails were laid. When a conductor, toting a pistol, asked a grizzled prospector where he was heading, the old man replied, "Hell." "That's 65¢ and get off at Dodge," the weary conductor declared.

Once built with rails from Wales laid on ties of oak and walnut, the railroad survived the economic and climatic hardships of the late nineteenth century, and eventually extended from Chicago to San Francisco, with over 12,000 miles of track and substantial holdings in oil fields, timber land, uranium mines, pipe lines, and real estate. . more


History of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway

Cyrus K. Holliday envisioned a railroad that would run from Kansas to the Pacific, increasing the commerce and prosperity of the nation. With farsighted investors and shrewd management, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway grew from Holliday’s idea into a model of the modern, rapid, and efficient railroad. There were many growing pains early on, including rustlers, thieves, and desperadoes as well as the nineteenth century’s economic and climatic hardships. The railroad eventually extended from Chicago to San Francisco, with substantial holdings in oil fields, timber land, uranium mines, pipelines, and real estate.

This is the first comprehensive history of the iconic Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, from its birth in 1859 to its termination in 1996. This volume discusses the construction and operation of the railway, the strategies of its leaders, the evolution of its locomotive fleet, and its famed passenger service with partner Fred Harvey. The vast changes within the nation’s railway system led to a merger with the Burlington Northern and the creation of the BNSF Railway.

An iconic railroad, the Santa Fe at its peak operated thirteen thousand miles of routes and served the southwestern region of the nation with the corporate slogan “Santa Fe All the Way.” This new edition covers almost twenty-five more years of history, including the merger of the Santa Fe and Burlington Northern railroads and new material on labor, minorities, and women on the carrier along with new and updated maps and photographs.


History of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway

Cyrus K. Holliday envisioned a railroad that would run from Kansas to the Pacific, increasing the commerce and prosperity of the nation. With farsighted investors and shrewd management, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway grew from Holliday’s idea into a model of the modern, rapid, and efficient railroad. There were many growing pains early on, including rustlers, th Cyrus K. Holliday envisioned a railroad that would run from Kansas to the Pacific, increasing the commerce and prosperity of the nation. With farsighted investors and shrewd management, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway grew from Holliday’s idea into a model of the modern, rapid, and efficient railroad. There were many growing pains early on, including rustlers, thieves, and desperadoes as well as the nineteenth century’s economic and climatic hardships. The railroad eventually extended from Chicago to San Francisco, with substantial holdings in oil fields, timber land, uranium mines, pipelines, and real estate.

This is the first comprehensive history of the iconic Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, from its birth in 1859 to its termination in 1996. This volume discusses the construction and operation of the railway, the strategies of its leaders, the evolution of its locomotive fleet, and its famed passenger service with partner Fred Harvey. The vast changes within the nation’s railway system led to a merger with the Burlington Northern and the creation of the BNSF Railway.

An iconic railroad, the Santa Fe at its peak operated thirteen thousand miles of routes and served the southwestern region of the nation with the corporate slogan “Santa Fe All the Way.” This new edition covers almost twenty-five more years of history, including the merger of the Santa Fe and Burlington Northern railroads and new material on labor, minorities, and women on the carrier along with new and updated maps and photographs.
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Mango

the atchison, topeka & santa fe railway (at&sf) chartered on february 11, 1859, join atchison , topeka, kansas, santa fe, new mexico. in years, railroad opened kansas settlement. of revenue came wheat grown there , cattle driven north texas wichita , dodge city september 1872.

rather turn survey southward @ dodge city, at&sf headed southwest on raton pass because of coal deposits near trinidad, colorado , raton, new mexico. denver & rio grande railroad (d&rg) aiming @ raton pass, at&sf crews arose 1 morning in 1878 , hard @ work picks , shovels when d&rgw crews showed breakfast. @ same time 2 railroads had series of skirmishes on occupancy of royal gorge west of cañon city, colorado physical confrontations led 2 years of armed conflict became known royal gorge railroad war. federal intervention prompted out-of-court settlement on february 2, 1880, in form of so-called treaty of boston , wherein d&rg allowed complete line , lease use santa fe. d&rg paid estimated $1.4 million santa fe work within gorge , agreed not extend line santa fe, while santa fe agreed forego planned routes denver , leadville.

building across kansas , eastern colorado simple, few natural obstacles (certainly fewer railroad encounter further west), railroad found economically impossible because of sparse population. set real estate offices in area , promoted settlement across kansas on land granted congress in 1863. offered discounted fares traveled west inspect land if land purchased, railroad applied passenger s fare toward price of land.

at&sf reached albuquerque in 1880 santa fe, original destination of railroad, found on short branch lamy, new mexico. in march 1881 at&sf connected southern pacific (sp) @ deming, new mexico, forming second transcontinental rail route. railroad built southwest benson, arizona, nogales on mexican border connected sonora railway, at&sf had built north mexican port of guaymas.

at&sf purchased southern california railway on jan. 17, 1906, purchase acquired los angeles , san gabriel valley railroad , california central railway.

atlantic , pacific railway

the atlantic & pacific railroad (a&p) chartered in 1866 build west springfield, missouri, along 35th parallel of latitude (approximately through amarillo, texas, , albuquerque, new mexico) junction sp @ colorado river. infant a&p had no rail connections. line become st. louis–san francisco railway (frisco) not reach springfield 4 years, , sp did not build east mojave colorado river until 1883. a&p started construction in 1868, built southwest become oklahoma, , promptly entered receivership.

in 1879 a&p struck deal santa fe , frisco railroads construct rail line each. railroads jointly build , own a&p railroad west of albuquerque. in 1883 a&p reached needles, california, connected sp line. a&p built line between tulsa, oklahoma , st. louis, missouri frisco, tulsa-albuquerque portion remained unbuilt.

a comparison map prepared santa fe railroad in 1921, showing old santa fé trail (top) , at&sf , connections (bottom)

the santa fe began expand: line barstow, california, san diego in 1885 , los angeles in 1887 control of gulf, colorado & santa fe railway (galveston-fort worth) in 1886 , line between wichita , fort worth in 1887 lines kansas city chicago, kiowa, kansas amarillo, , pueblo denver (paralleling d&rgw) in 1888 , purchase of frisco , colorado midland railway in 1890. january 1890, entire system consisted of 7,500 miles of track.

the panic of 1893 had same effect on at&sf had on many other railroads financial problems , subsequent reorganization. in 1895 at&sf sold frisco , colorado midland , wrote off losses, still retained control of a&p.

the santa fe railway still wanted reach california on own rails (it leased sp line needles barstow), , state of california eagerly courted railroad break sp s monopoly. in 1897 railroad traded sonora railway of mexico sp line between needles , barstow, giving at&sf own line chicago pacific coast. unique in regard until milwaukee road completed extension puget sound in 1909.

subsequent expansion of santa fe railway encompassed lines amarillo pecos (1899) ash fork, arizona phoenix (1901) williams, arizona grand canyon (1901) belen cutoff pecos line @ texico isleta pueblo, new mexico, south of albuquerque, bypassing grades of raton pass (1907) , coleman cutoff, texico coleman, texas, near brownwood (1912).

in 1907, at&sf , sp jointly formed northwestern pacific railroad (nwp), took on several short railroads , built new lines connecting them form route san francisco north eureka, california. in 1928, santa fe sold half of nwp sp. in addition, santa fe purchased u.s. portion of kansas city, mexico & orient railway (the mexican portion of line became chihuahua-pacific railway, part of national railways of mexico).

because long stretches of main line traverse areas without water, santa fe 1 of first buyers of diesel locomotives freight service. railroad known passenger trains, notably chicago-los angeles el capitan , super chief (currently operated amtrak s southwest chief), , on-line eating houses , dining cars operated fred harvey. several of these harvey houses survive - notably el tovar, positioned right alongside grand canyon.

on 000000001955-03-29-0000march 29, 1955, railway 1 of many companies sponsored attractions in disneyland 5-year sponsorship of disneyland trains , stations.

post-world war ii construction projects included entrance dallas north, , relocation of main line across northern arizona, between seligman , williams. in 1960, at&sf bought toledo, peoria & western railroad (tp&w), sold half interest pennsylvania railroad (prr). tp&w cut straight east across illinois near fort madison, iowa, connection prr @ effner, indiana, forming bypass around chicago traffic moving between 2 lines. tp&w route did not mesh traffic pattern prr successor conrail developed after 1976, at&sf bought other half, merged tp&w in 1983, sold independence in 1989.

at&sf , sp railroad trains meet @ walong siding on tehachapi loop in late 1980s

at&sf began propose merger in 1980s. southern pacific santa fe railroad (spsf) proposed merger between parent companies of southern pacific , at&sf announced on december 23, 1983. part of joining of 2 firms, rail , non-rail assets owned santa fe industries , southern pacific transportation company placed under control of holding company, santa fe–southern pacific corporation. merger subsequently denied interstate commerce commission (icc) on basis create many duplicate routes.

the companies confident merger approved began repainting locomotives , non-revenue rolling stock in new unified paint scheme. after icc s denial, railfans joked spsf stood shouldn t paint fast. while southern pacific sold off, of california real estate holdings consolidated in new company, catellus development corporation, making state s largest private landowner. time later, catellus purchase union pacific railroad s interest in los angeles union passenger terminal (laupt). after sp s sale, spsf renamed santa fe pacific corporation, holding company of at&sf.

burlington northern merger

on september 22, 1995, at&sf merged burlington northern railroad form burlington northern & santa fe railway (bnsf). of challenges resulting joining of 2 companies included establishment of common dispatching system, unionization of at&sf s non-union dispatchers, , incorporating at&sf s train identification codes throughout. 2 lines maintained separate operations until december 31, 1996 when officially became bnsf.

source: santa fe railroad (1945), along way, rand mcnally, chicago, illinois.


[Map of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway routes through the Southwestern United States].

Map shows existing and under-construction railroad lines across the Southwestern United States boundary lines, cities and towns along and near railroad routes, Native American reservations, national parks, and points of interest. Inset: [Map of connecting railroads through Mexico]. Relief shown by hachures. Scale not given.

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1 map : 22 x 39 cm., on sheet 30 x 45 cm.

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Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad - History


Baldwin Locomotive Works
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A.�

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe
Railway System

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway System occupies a prominent position among the great railway systems of the United States. The original company was chartered on February 11, 1859, under the name of the Atchison and Topeka Railroad Company. This name was changed on March 3, 1863, to Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company. The construction of the main line was begun in 1869, and the road was opened for traffic on February 20, 1873. The original main line extended from Atchison, Kansas, to the western boundary of the state, and was 470.58 miles in length the Company also operating 39.28 miles of branch lines. During the years 1874 to 1885, additional extensions and branch lines aggregating 1357.90 miles were opened, bringing the total length of main line and branches, on December 31, 1885, up to 1867.76 miles. The mileage of controlled roads amounted to 878.99, the total mileage of the system thus being 2746.75 miles.

During the next ten years the system was rapidly extended and additional lines were acquired. In 1895, the mileage operated as the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad was 4582.12 the total mileage in the system including controlled roads, being 9321.29. The company was in the hands of receivers at this time, and a complete reorganization being decided upon, a new charter was secured, under the laws of Kansas, on December 12, 1895. The new corporation took possession of the property on January 1, 1896, under the name of The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. Since then additional lines have been acquired by the management. On June 30, 1904, the total mileage embraced in the published results of operations of The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company was 8300.92 the entire length of the system, including roads controlled or owned jointly with other companies, being 9269.20 Miles.

A double daily service is maintained between Chicago and San Francisco, and through sleepers are run between Chicago, Los Angeles and San Diego. The "California Limited," (train No. 3 west bound and train No. 4 east bound), which carries first class passengers only, takes rank as one of the finest trains in the world. The distance from Chicago to San Francisco is 2577 miles, the actual running time for train No. 3 being seventy-six hours fifty-five minutes, representing an average speed, including stops, of thirty-three and five-tenths miles per hour. The road crosses three mountain ranges, where heavy grades are encountered.

The history of the motive power of the Santa Fe System is of peculiar interest because, since the advent of the very heavy locomotive, this road has played a leading part in its development. The Baldwin Locomotive Works, has been closely identified with this development, having supplied altogether since the beginning of the road, some 1000 locomotives. These engines have been of various types, and a brief review of the classes represented will prove interesting.

The first locomotives constructed at the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Santa Fe System were four in number. They were built in 1875, and were of the "American type," bearing the road numbers, 44, 45, 46 and 47. These engines were representative of a type generally employed at that time for working all classes of traffic. They had cylinders sixteen inches in diameter by twenty-four inches stroke, the driving wheels being fifty-seven inches in diameter with a wheelbase of eight feet. The total wheelbase was twenty-one feet nine inches. The boiler was of the crown bar wagon top type with iron shell and a steel firebox. It was forty-six inches in diameter and contained 144 tubes, two inches in diameter and ten feet ten and three-eighths inches long. The firebox was sixty-four and three-quarters inches long by thirty-four and one-half inches wide. The grate area was fifteen and seventy-four one hundredths square feet, and the total heating surface 926 square feet. These engines weighed about 67,000 pounds, and carried about 42,000 pounds on their driving wheels. They were furnished with eight-wheel tenders, having wood frames and tanks of 2000 gallons capacity. Four locomotives of similar weights and dimensions were built in 1877 and 1878.

During the following year, 1879, thirteen engines of the same type, but of greater power, were supplied by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, one of them, No. 91, being illustrated on page 4 . These engines had cylinders seventeen inches in diameter by twenty-four inches stroke. The driving wheels were fifty-seven inches in diameter with a wheelbase of eight feet, the total wheelbase being twenty-two feet six and one-quarter inches. The boiler was of the wagon top type, forty-eight inches in diameter it contained 161 tubes, two inches in diameter by eleven feet seven and one-half inches long. The firebox measured sixty-four and fifteen-sixteenths inches long by thirty-four and three-eighths inches wide. The grate area was fifteen and six-tenths square feet. The firebox heating surface was 103 square feet, and the tube heating surface, 975 square feet the total thus being 1078 square feet. These engines weighed about 73,000 pounds in working order, the weight on the driving wheels being 47,000 pounds. The tenders were of two sizes, that of engine No. 91 having a 2500 gallon tank. The tank capacity of some of the engines of this class was only 2200 gallons.

At this time construction was in progress on the New Mexico and Southern Pacific division of the line. Previous to the completion of the tunnel at Raton Pass, near the New Mexico State line, the mountains were crossed by a "switch back" two and three-quarters miles long, having grades of six per cent. (316.8 feet per mile) combined with curves of sixteen degrees. To operate on this section of track the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1878, built a consolidation locomotive of exceptional power, which at that date, was the largest engine constructed in the practice of the Works. This locomotive bore the road number 204, and was named "Uncle Dick." It had cylinders twenty inches in diameter by twenty-six inches stroke the driving wheels being forty-two inches in diameter. With 130 pounds steam pressure the tractive power would thus be 27,400 pounds. The boiler was straight top, built of steel throughout. It was fifty-eight inches in diameter, and contained 213 tubes, two inches in diameter and ten feet eleven and three-quarters inches long. The firebox was 119 and one-eighth inches long by thirty-three and three-eighths inches wide, with a grate area of twenty-seven and four-tenths square feet. The total heating surface was 1376 square feet, the firebox contributing 153 square feet, and the tubes 1223 square feet. The first and third pairs of driving wheels had plain tires, so that while the driving wheelbase was fourteen feet nine inches, the rigid wheelbase was but nine feet the total wheelbase being twenty-two feet ten inches. The engine had a saddle tank of 1200 gallons capacity on its boiler. As used on the road a separate tender was also provided, having an additional capacity for 2500 gallons. The total weight of the engine was about 115,000 pounds, of which 100,000 pounds were carried on the driving wheels. The illustration on page 5 and the reproductions of the drawings on pages 6 and 7 , clearly show the principal features of the design.

This locomotive did efficient work, hauling on an average seven cars weighing, loaded, 43,000 pounds each, over the six per cent. grade the tender weighing about 44,000 pounds additional. On one occasion nine loaded cars were hauled. In a day of twelve hours, the "Uncle Dick" usually moved forty-six loaded cars over the switchback from the north to the south side, bringing back as many in return. In comparison two "American type" locomotives coupled together could move only thirty-four cars each way per day, so that the Consolidation engine was more than equal in capacity to two standard road engines, the cost for fuel and engine service being but little more than for one American type locomotive.

During the years 1880 and 1881, forty-five Consolidation locomotives, built at the Baldwin Works, were added to the equipment. Fourteen of these engines were similar in many respects to the "Uncle Dick," having the same wheel spacing and the same size boiler. The saddle tank was omitted the diameter of the driving wheels was increased to fifty inches, and the piston stroke to twenty-eight inches. The total weight was 107,000 pounds, the weight on driving wheels being 91,800 pounds. The tank capacity was 3200 gallons. Engine No. 132, illustrated on page 8 , represents the class. The remaining thirty-one Consolidation locomotives referred to were built for the Rio Grande, Mexico and Pacific Division. They were lighter engines having cylinders seventeen inches in diameter by twenty-six inches stroke the driving wheels being forty-five inches in diameter. The total weight was about 79,000 pounds of which the driving wheels carried about 66,000 pounds.

In 1882, fifteen American type locomotives were built, these being the heaviest engines of this type so far delivered to the road. Their weight being about 78,000 pounds.

During the next few years, the necessity for heavier locomotives for passenger traffic became fully realized and in 1886 the Baldwin Works began the building of ten-wheel engines for this class of service. These were large locomotives for their day, having cylinders nineteen inches in diameter by twenty-six inches stroke and fifty-eight inch driving wheels. The boiler was straight, sixty inches in diameter. It contained 227 tubes, two and one-quarter inches in diameter, and thirteen feet one and one-half inches long. The firebox measured eighty-two and fifteen-sixteenths inches long and thirty-four and three-eighths inches wide, the grate area being twenty square feet. The firebox heating surface was 143 square feet, and the tube heating surface 1742 square feet thus giving a total of 188S square feet. The driving wheels were grouped on a wheelbase of fourteen feet six inches, the total wheelbase being twenty-five feet eleven and one-half inches. These engines weighed 114,500 pounds in working order, the weight on driving wheels being 85,400 pounds. The tank capacity was 3500 gallons.

During the ten years following 1886, upward of 100 ten-wheel locomotives, for both passenger and freight service, were supplied to the System, in addition to a number of six-wheel switchers and a few eight-wheel and Consolidation engines. During this period steam pressures gradually increased from 130 and 140 pounds to 180 pounds, and in 1894 several eight-wheel and ten-wheel engines were built to work at 200 pounds, an unusually high pressure for single-expansion engines at that time.

The demand for more powerful locomotives was being met, and forty-five Consolidation engines built in 1898 were representative of the type then employed for heavy freight service. One of these engines is illustrated on page 9 . Particular interest attaches to this design, as these were the first locomotives built by the Baldwin Works to have cast steel frames, which had largely been used by John Player, then Superintendent of Motive Power, and which were specified by him. The builders guaranteed to replace, within a period of two years, all frames showing defective material or workmanship, provided such frames were made by the Standard Steel Works. Frames furnished by other makers and accepted by the company's representative, were not subject to the guarantee. The cylinders of these engines were twenty-one inches in diameter by twenty-eight inches. stroke, the driving wheels being fifty-seven inches in diameter. The boiler contained 1905 square feet of heating surface and twenty-nine and one-quarter square feet of grate area, and carried a steam pressure of 180 pounds. The total weight in working order was 156,130 pounds, of which 139,530 were carried on the driving wheels. These engines were followed, in 1900, by forty heavier locomotives of the same type, having larger boilers and thirty-inch piston stroke.

Fifteen ten-wheel locomotives were constructed in 1899. The illustration on page 10 , of engine 833, shows their general features. The frames were of cast steel. These locomotives had cylinders twenty inches in diameter by twenty-six inches stroke, the diameter of the driving wheels being sixty-nine inches and the steam pressure 18o pounds thus giving them a tractive power of 23,000 pounds. The boiler was of the wagon top type, sixty inches in diameter. It contained 262 tubes, two inches in diameter and fourteen feet three inches long, the firebox being 102 inches long by forty and one-quarter inches wide. The grate area was twenty-eight and five-tenths square feet. The heating surface of the firebox was 167, and of the tubes 1942 square feet: thus giving a total of 2109 square feet. The total weight was 155,6io pounds, the weight on driving wheels being 120,410 pounds. The tank capacity was 5000 gallons.

In June, 1901, Mr. J. W. Kendrick accepted the position of third vice-president of the Santa Fe System. Mr. Kendrick's wide experience in various branches of railway work enabled him to deal successfully with the problems which, at this time, confronted the various operating departments and especially the question of selecting suitable motive power for handling the constantly increasing traffic. From this time on the weight and power of all classes of locomotives built for the Santa Fe rapidly increased, and the advantages of using compound locomotives were clearly recognized. The wide firebox was introduced on road engines, the Santa Fe thus being quick to recognize its advantages. In 1901, the Baldwin Locomotive Works built fifty Moguls for fast freight service, thirty-five of which were compound and fifteen single expansion, one of the latter is illustrated on page 11 Five compound ten-wheel passenger locomotives, having Vanderbilt boilers, designed for burning fuel oil, were turned out at about the same time and were followed by forty Prairie type locomotives which were the heaviest yet constructed for passenger service and represented a great advance over anything heretofore built for this road. These engines are illustrated on page 13 . During 1902 and 1903, 103 similar locomotives, with sixty-nine inch driving wheels, were built for fast freight service, one of which is illustrated on page 14 .

In the meantime a rapid development in the weight and power of heavy freight locomotives was taking place. One of thirty-five compound Consolidation engines, built in 1902, is illustrated and described on page 15 .

Early in the same year the Decapod engine, illustrated on page 17 , was built and the locomotive weight-record was again broken. This was the first tandem compound built at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. It was followed in the latter part of 1902, by fifteen Vauclain compound "Mikado" type engines.

The policy which has characterized the Santa Fe during recent years, toward improvements in locomotive construction, has been a most liberal one. Realizing the advantages possessed by the balanced compound locomotive, the road in 1903, ordered from the Baldwin Works four Atlantic type engines constructed on this principle. Mr. Kendrick was chiefly responsible for the introduction of these engines, and he has since taken a leading part in their development and successful operation the Santa Fe having more balanced compound locomotives in use than any other railway in the United States. The number built to date for this road is 137. Of these ninety-six are Atlantic type engines which are working through express traffic between Chicago and La Junta, Colorado. The remaining forty-one are of the Pacific type, and are used on the mountain divisions of the system. In order to keep the wheelbase of the latter engines within reasonable limits, all the pistons are coupled to the second driving axle. As the cylinders are all in the same horizontal plane, the inside main rods are built with a loop which spans the leading driving axle.

The successful performance of the balanced compounds on the Santa Fe has attracted wide attention and has resulted in the extensive use of similar engines on other roads. The Atlantic type engines have made some particularly fine runs, and have demonstrated their ability, when handling heavy trains, to maintain high horse-power and sustained speed.

An illustration and description of one of the Atlantic type engines, which was exhibited at the St. Louis Exposition is presented on page 23 , while the Pacific type is illustrated on page 25 . The majority of the latter class are equipped for burning oil.

In 1903, previous to the building of the balanced compound Pacific type locomotives, twenty-six engines of similar type, having single-expansion cylinders with piston valves, were constructed at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. One of these engines is illustrated on the opposite page .

The heavy Santa Fe type locomotive illustrated on page 21 , is one of 141 built since 1903. The cylinders of these engines are similar to those of the Decapod locomotive previously mentioned. The addition of the trailing wheels gives them better curving qualities, especially when running backward down grades. These engines, when introduced, were the heaviest in the world. A large number are at work on the western divisions of the system, and are using oil as fuel. A similar locomotive, having single-expansion cylinders twenty-four inches in diameter, was built in 1904 but those since constructed have all, with one exception, been fitted with tandem compound cylinders. The exception referred to is a locomotive built in 1905, which is equipped with a smokebox superheater and single-expansion cylinders thirty-two inches in diameter the boiler pressure being 140 pounds. This engine was constructed for experimental purposes.

A series of tests on the hauling power of the Santa Fe locomotives has recently been carried out, the draw-bar pull being measured by a dynamometer car. The following table gives data secured on the New Mexico Division. The tonnage behind the tender, number of cars in the train, draw-bar pull and grade in feet per mile are recorded also the stations between which readings were taken.

With the starting valve open, the dynamometer registered as high as 71,000 pounds draw-bar pull. This was maintained however, for only brief periods of time.

Thirty-nine heavy six-coupled switching engines have been built during the past year, and are illustrated on page 27 . These engines are representative of the latest practice for this class of service. The principal dimensions are presented with the illustration.

In building engines of various types for the same road it is of great advantage to the builder as well as the railway company to have the detail parts as far as possible interchangeable. In the locomotives for the Santa Fe System, not only are the like parts of each class accurately interchangeable, but the various classes show a marked similarity in design and many parts are interchangeable throughout several classes.

On several occasions exceptionally rapid runs have been made over the Santa Fe System, the most recent being that of the Scott Special, which left Los Angeles at 1 P.M . on July 9, 1905, and reached Dearborn Station, Chicago, at 11.54 A.M. on July 11, covering 2265 miles in 44 hours 54 minutes, actual time, including all delays. This represents an average speed of 50.4 miles per hour, and the feat stands without a parallel in the history of long distance running. For practically half the distance the run was made through mountainous country, adding enormously to the difficulties encountered. Too much credit cannot be given the management and all the employees concerned, for this remarkable performance.

The run was made for the accommodation of Mr. Walter Scott, a wealthy mine owner from Death Valley, California. Mr. Scott first proposed the trip on Saturday, July 8, and 25 hours later the special left Los Angeles. The price paid for the run was $5500.

The train was made up, of a baggage car, a diner, and a Pullman sleeper, together weighing 170 tons. Nineteen locomotives were employed, manned by 18 engineers and 18 firemen. In addition, three helper engines were employed and an extra engine hauled the train for a short distance, owing to an accident to the regular train engine. The train was in charge of ten conductors, and the running was supervised by the various superintendents over whose divisions it passed.

Of the 19 locomotives, 17 were Baldwin engines. One was a ten wheeler, four were of the Prairie type, with Vauclain compound cylinders, three were of the Pacific type, and nine were of the Atlantic type, with balanced compound cylinders. The latter class handled the train between La junta and Chicago, where the fastest time was made. The remaining two engines were Rhode Island ten-wheelers, similar to the Baldwin engine of the same type. In addition to these engines, a Baldwin compound Prairie type locomotive, with sixty-nine inch wheels, hauled the train from Kent to Newton, a distance of twenty-six miles, on account of the accident to the train engine referred to above. The following summary gives a general outline of the trip, showing the distance run by each locomotive, average speed maintained and other items of interest.

Los Angeles to Barstow.— Engine 442, Baldwin ten-wheeler ( type illustrated on page 10 ), Engineer John Finlay. Distance, 141.1 miles. Time 2 hours 55 minutes. Delayed near Upland 3 minutes, hot tender journal San Bernardino 6 minutes, water Cajon 4 minutes, water. Helper engine, San Bernardino to Summit, 25.5 miles Maximum grade, 116 feet per mile. Average speed, including Stops, 48.5 miles per hour.

Barstow to Needles.— Engine 1005, Baldwin compound Prairie type ( illustrated on page 13 ). Engineer T. U. Gallagher. Distance, 169.3 miles. Time, 3 hours 19 minutes. Average speed, 51 miles per hour. Average ascending grade, Amboy to Goffs Summit, 52.4 miles, 37.6 feet per mile. Maximum grade, 53 feet per mile.

Needles to Seligman.— Engine 1010, Baldwin compound Prairie type. Engineer F. W. Jackson. Distance, 148.9 miles. Time, 3 hours 31 minutes. Average speed, 42.4 miles per hour. Average ascending grade for entire distance, 31.9 feet per mile. Maximum, 95 feet per mile.

Seligman to Williams.— Engine 1016, Baldwin compound Prairie type. Engineer C. Woods. Distance, 50.8 miles. Time, 1 hour 29 minutes. Average speed, 34.4 miles per hour. Grades generally ascending. Maximum, 137 feet per mile.

Williams to Winslow.— Engine 485, Rhode Island ten-wheeler. Engineer D. A. Lenhart. Distance, 92.2 miles. Time, 2 hours 11 minutes. Average speed 42.1 miles per hour. Grades undulating. Maximum, 95 feet per mile ascending, 75 feet descending.

Winslow to Gallup.— Engine 1000, Baldwin compound Prairie type. Engineer J. F. Briscoe. Distance, 128 miles. Time, 2 hours 35 minutes. Average speed, 49.4 miles per hour. Grades ascending, average for entire distance 12.9 feet per mile. Maximum, 32 feet per mile.

Gallup to Albuquerque.— Engine 478, Rhode Island ten-wheeler. Engineer H. J. Rehder. Distance, 157.8 miles. Time 3 hours 12 minutes. Average speed, 49.4 miles per hour. Grades undulating. Maximum, 53 feet per mile.

Albuquerque to Las Vegas.— Engine 1211, Baldwin Pacific type ( illustrated on page 19 ). Engineer Ed. Sears. Distance, 132.2 miles. Time, 3 hours. Average speed 44 miles per hour. Helper engine, Lamy to Glorieta, 9.8 miles. Delayed Lamy, 7 minutes Glorieta, 2 minutes. Maximum ascending grade, 158 feet per mile.

Las Vegas to Raton.— Engine 1208, Baldwin Pacific type. Engineer G. Norman. Distance 110.8 miles. Time, 2 hours 12 minutes. Average speed, 50.5 miles per hour. Delayed Springer, 4 minutes, water. Grades undulating. Maximum, 75 feet per mile.

Raton to La Junta.— Engine 1215, Baldwin Pacific type. Engineer H. Gardiner. Distance, 104.5 miles. Time, 2 hours 17 minutes. Average speed, 46.2 miles per hour. Helper Raton to Trinidad, 23 miles. Maximum grade, 175 feet per mile. Delayed Trinidad, 2 minutes Timpas, 3 minutes, hot box on diner.

La junta to Syracuse.— Engine 536, Baldwin Balanced compound Atlantic type ( illustrated on page 23 ). Engineer David Lesher. Distance, 100.8 miles. Time, 1 hour 35 minutes. Average speed, 63.7 miles per hour. Grade descending, average 8.2 feet per mile.

Syracuse to Dodge City.— Engine 531, Baldwin Balanced compound. Engineer H. Simmons. Distance, 101.6 miles. Time, 1 hour 38 minutes. Average speed, 62.2 miles per hour. Grade descending, average 7.2 feet per mile. Delayed Hartland, 5 minutes, broken triple on engine.

Dodge City to Newton.— Engine 530, Baldwin Balanced compound. Engineer E. Norton. No. 530 knocked out a cylinder head at Kent. Thence to Newton, 26 miles, train was hauled by Engine 1095, Baldwin Compound Prairie type, with sixty-nine inch wheels. Engineer Halsey. Total distance, 153.4 miles. Time, 2 hours 39 minutes. Average speed, 57.9 miles per hour. Grades generally descending, average 6.7 feet per mile. Delayed St. John, 7 minutes, water and oil Kent 4 minutes, changing engines.

Newton to Emporia.— Engine 526, Baldwin Balanced compound. Engineer H. Rossiter. Distance, 73.1 miles. Time, 1 hour 10 minutes. Average speed 62.6 miles per hour. Grades light and generally descending.

Emporia to Argntine.— Engine 524, Baldwin Balanced compound. Engineer J. Gossard. Distance, 120.2 miles. Time, 2 hours 10 minutes. Average speed, 57.3 miles per hour. Grades short and undulating, track almost level, Topeka to Argentine, 62 miles. Lost about 14 minutes owing to reduced speed through yards, etc.

Argentine to Marceline.— Engine 547, Baldwin Balanced compound, seventy-three inch drivers. Engineer A. F. Barnes. Distance, 108 miles. Time, 2 hours 1 minute. Average speed, 54 miles per hour.. Road generally level.

Marceline to Shopton.— Engine 542, Baldwin Balanced compound, seventy-three inch drivers. Engineer R. Jones. Distance, 112.8 miles. Time, 2 hours 3 minutes. Average speed, 55 miles per hour. Grades, short and undulating.

Shopton to Chillicothe.— Engine 510, Baldwin Balanced compound. Engineer C. Losee. Distance, 104.7 miles. Time, 1 hour 41 minutes. Average speed, 62.3 miles per hour. Grades undulating maximum, 31.68 feet per mile.

Chillicothe to Chicago.— Engine 517, Baldwin Balanced compound. Engineer C. Losee. Distance, 134.3 miles. Time, 2 hours 12 minutes. Average speed, 61.0 miles per hour. Delayed at South Joliet 4 minutes on account of hot crank pin on engine. Ran slow through Joliet yard and into Chicago. About 18 miles of ascending grade just east of Chillicothe, maximum 26.4 feet per mile. Otherwise line is undulating with easy grades.

Some remarkable bursts of speed were made on this trip, especially on the eastern end where the Balanced compounds were used. The highest speed was recorded between Cameron and Surry, 2.8 miles, Engine 510 covering the distance in 1 minute 35 seconds, the equivalent of 106.1 miles per hour. On descending grades in the mountain districts, speeds exceeding 70 miles an hour were occasionally recorded.


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad - History


The Cosmopolitan—February, 1893

By CHARLES S. GLEED.
Charles S. Gleed, of Topeka, Kansas, was born in Vermont, in 1856, of an English father and a New England mother. He removed to Kansas when ten years of age, and has resided in or near Kansas ever since. He grew up as a journalist, concluding his journalistic work as editor of the Denver Daily Tribune. He acquired an extended and diversified experience in the passenger department of the Kansas Pacific, Union Pacific and Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe roads, and in the law department of the last named company. He has also learned much of various western railroad properties as an attorney and has enjoyed special advantages for becoming acquainted with the system about which he writes, because of his long connection with the company, in Its construction days, and subsequently he acquired an extended knowledge of the legal and financial history of the company by work along those lines.

PROSAIC business and genuine romance were never more perfectly compounded than in the history of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad company—the company known on the stock market, and therefore in the east generally, as "The Atchison," and in the west as "The Santa Fe." This company came into existence and its lines were constructed in accordance with more than a quarter of a century of prophecy.

This prophecy was not made, as a rule, by those who were accounted most wise in worldly matters. Financiers for the most part saw little to justify the faith of the soldiers, miners and other frontiers-men who urged that the old Santa Fe trail ought to be converted into a trail of steel, and some day would be.

Down to the very times when the final projector of the line, Cyrus K. Holliday, was patiently begging men of means to take hold of his scheme, great statesmen in congress were echoing the verdict of the great financiers who said as a settled fact that money invested in "the great American desert" would never come back.

Even when Thomas J. Peter, who built the first thousand miles of the road, started west to look over the situation, he believed he was merely to take an interesting but profitless journey to the neglect of his regular business, for he thought there would be no support for an additional railroad west of the Missouri river. His views were not changed until he saw the vast herds of buffalo supported by the prairie grass. This convinced him that under the grass there was that which would support millions of people. On this conviction he concluded to act.

One of the first whom he consulted was the late Senator Preston B. Plumb, who threw all his characteristic energy into the encouragement of the enterprise. There were those who scarcely believed in the road as a financial practicability beyond three or four hundred miles from the Missouri river, yet who thought that from there on the government would some day build a line to the Pacific over the "thirty-fifth parallel route" (through New Mexico and Arizona) as a strategic measure and as a mail route. And so, after all sorts of men with all sorts of views had contributed to the consideration of this question, the right men came and the locomotive and the Pullman car drove out the ox team and the covered wagon, and the desolate trail became the highway of nations.

The originator of the enterprise, the father of it, as he is commonly called, was Colonel Cyrus K. Holliday of Kansas, one of the founders of Topeka, and now a resident of that city. Colonel Holliday drew up the charter of the company and as a member of the territorial senate of 1859 secured its passage. The first name of the company was the Atchison & Topeka Railroad company, but the vast nature of the enterprise was indicated by the authority secured to build toward the city of Santa Fe and the Gulf of Mexico. The name of the company was changed to its present form in November 1863. The original incorporators associated with Colonel Holliday were United States Senator Samuel C. Pomeroy, Luther C. Challis, Peter T. Abell, Milton C. Dickey, Asaph Allen, Samuel Dickson, Nelson L. Gordon, George S. Hillyer, Lorenzo D. Bird, Jeremiah Murphy, George H. Fairchild and R. L. Crane. From the day of the incorporation until 1868 Colonel Holliday importuned the capitalists of the east, in season and out, to take hold of his scheme. Rebuff, not to say ridicule, was nearly all he got for his pains. In 1867 a contract was made with George W. Beach of New York, to build the entire road as then contemplated. Beach failed to execute his contract, and in 1868 assigned it to Mr. T. J. Peter of Cincinnati, now of Alabama, who was the first man found with both the courage and the ability to build the road.

Mr. Peter represented the contracting firm of Dodge, Lord & Co. of Cincinnati, composed of Messrs. Francis Dodge, H. C. Lord (then president of the Indianapolis, Cincinnati & Lafayette road), Orlin Smith (then vice-president of the Baltimore & Ohio road), H. B. Frost, Henry Stearns, George W. Norris and T. J. Pete. On securing the Beach contract in 1868, Dodge, Lord & Co. organized a contracting firm to build the first twenty-five miles of the road. From this time on many famous men were connected with the enterprise. Mr. Peter, as the assignee of Beach, made a contract with the members of his firm and other parties to build from Topeka to Burlingame, Topeka being accessible over the Kansas Pacific road.

H.C. Lord, the Hon. Ginnery Twitchell, and Henry Keyes were presidents of the company between the time of beginning construction at Topeka and the time the line was complete to the Kansas west line in 1873. The succeeding presidents to the present time were Henry Strong, who served one year Thomas Nickerson, who served from 1874 to 1880 T. Jeff. Coolidge, who served from 1880 to 1881. William B. Strong, who served from 1881 to 1889, and Allen Manvel, who was chosen to succeed Mr. Strong.

Those who have had immediate charge of the property as general managers, or with equivalent authority, have been: Thomas J. Peter, C. F. Morse, William B. Strong, George O. Manchester, C. C. Wheeler, A. E. Touzalin, C. W. Smith, J. F. Goddard and Albert A. Robinson. To the last-named gentleman belongs the honor of having built every mile of the company's lines not acquired by purchase. He was the first engineer employed by Mr. Peter, and from the first mile to the last he has been the engineer in authority. Probably no engineer in the country has a like record.

In the Santa Fe system there are 9298 miles of track—nearly all single track a mileage more than equal to one-third the distance around the earth. The first twenty-eight miles of this track was constructed in 1869. The entire system, therefore, has come into existence within twenty-three years. It really came into existence in twenty years.

The extreme termini of the system are at Chicago, St. Louis, Galveston, El Paso, Guaymas, San Diego, Grand Junction, Denver, and Superior, Nebraska. These termini transferred eastward in the United States would fall, approximately, at Boston, Jacksonville, Florida Little Rock, Arkansas Corpus Christi, Texas Panhandle, Texas Omaha, Nebraska Chicago, Illinois, and Cleveland, Ohio. Or, transferred to the map of Europe, they would fall, approximately, at St. Petersburg, Dunaburg, Vienna, Paris, Rochelle, Cork, Edinburgh, Hamburg and Dantzig.

The approximate number of miles from Chicago to each of the terminal points named is as follows: St. Louis 275, Galveston 1400, El Paso 1600, Guaymas 2100, San Diego 2500, Grand junction 1500, Denver 1200, and Superior 700. Various traffic contracts give the company access to great centres of trade not actually reached by its own tracks, as in the case of San Francisco, Salt Lake, and the connection between St. Louis and Chicago.

The mileage of the system is, substantially, equal to half that of Great Britain and Ireland, half that of France, two-fifths that of Germany, half that of Russia, twice that of Mexico, and one-sixteenth that of the United States. The mileage of the system is distributed in the various states and territories in which it is located, very nearly as follows: Illinois 295, Missouri 1300, Arkansas 102, Texas 1188, Nebraska 3, Colorado 770, Arizona 490, California 475, Iowa 20, Kansas 2978, Indian Territory 555, New Mexico 860, Sonora (Old Mexico) 262.

The greater part of the system lies in a comparatively level country, in which agriculture in all its forms is the chief industry. The mountain lines are in Colorado and New Mexico, where the work of construction was as heavy as almost any in the world. What maybe termed representative altitudes are these: Chicago 593 feet, Kansas City 765 feet, La junta 4061 feet, Denver 5170 feet, the Great Divide (Colorado) 11530 feet Raton tunnel 7622 feet, Las Vegas 6398 feet, Glorietta 7432 feet, Albuquerque 4949 feet, Continental Divide (Arizona) 7257 feet, Winslow 4848 feet, Flagstaff 6886 feet, the Needles 477 feet, Mojave 2737 feet, Los Angeles 270 feet, San Diego 12 feet, El Paso 3717 feet, and Galveston 10 feet.

There has been much costly and unusual engineering work in the system. The great elevations in New Mexico and Colorado were reached by remarkably difficult work. The longest tunnel, that on Raton mountain, at the Colorado-New Mexico state-line, is 2011 feet long. There are five notable bridges. One crosses the Illinois river and is nearly two miles long. Others cross the Mississippi river at Fort Madison, Iowa, the Missouri river at Sibley, Missouri, and the Colorado river at the Needles. This latter is a cantilever bridge 990 feet long. These bridges cost nearly one million dollars each.

One of the chief difficulties encountered by the company in building through New Mexico was the physical peculiarity of the country. Mr. Robinson left nothing undone to discover what must be guarded against in the work of construction. For example, the oldest inhabitants were consulted at great length as to what ought to be expected as to rain and the water courses. But after the line was constructed the water made light of all that had ever been said about it historically. It ran where it had never been before and it failed to appear where it was most expected. Mile after mile of track was lifted from its place in the canyons and hung in graceful festoons on the trees and hillsides. Suddenly, on occasion, a shallow valley in which water never seemed to have been heard of before would contain a roaring torrent, which would run madly at the intruding railroad and reduce it to its primitive level. In the Rio Grande valley, the river, with all the capriciousness of the wind, ran first on one side of the valley and then on the other, each time leaving the track to sink or swim as its superintendent might manage. It was no uncommon spectacle, even as late as 1884, to see Superintendent George L. Sands, with his men, wading and swimming from bank to bank in an heroic endeavor to "make both ends meet." Iron bridges, longer spans, higher locations, elaborate dikes and ditches seem to have fixed things so that water may be defied. Parts of the system were built with incredible rapidity. Track-laying at the rate of a mile a day was often achieved. The track across the Great Divide winds and climbs and crosses and recrosses itself in a wonderful manner.

The traffic of the company has been managed largely by the same man through almost the whole life of the road. The freight department was managed, until about three years ago, by Mr. J. F. Goddard, who succeeded Mr. Fink as chief of the trunk line associations in New York. Mr. Goddard's chief assistant for many years, was Mr. J. S. Leeds, now manager of the Citizens' Traffic Association of San Francisco. The traffic official longest and most prominently connected with the system is Mr. William Francis White, the present manager of all the passenger traffic of the system. He began with the company when both the freight and passenger business was scarcely sufficient to keep one man busy. He has had immediate supervision of a large part of the settlement of the vast territory of the system, and in that way has participated more than almost any other man in the development of the country.

Most of the lines of the system preceded settlement, not to say civilization, passing through new country, too remote for substantial settlement without railway communication. The people of New Mexico, Mexico and Arizona, were nearly all Spanish Americans, except the Indians, and the railway was constructed under conditions very peculiar, to say the least. The native citizens were torn with conflicting sentiments, fear and admiration striving for the mastery. The whole situation was so novel that one of the early directors of the company predicted that the lines in New Mexico and Arizona would never pay operating expenses.

What may be termed the grand divisions of the system, each planned according to well-defined theories of possible traffic, are nine in number.

The Kansas lines reach the agricultural, grazing and mining regions of the southern half of Kansas and parts of the northern half, the north border of the Indian Territory and northwestern Texas, by east and west lines through the Kansas, Neosho, Arkansas and lesser valleys of the state.

The Colorado lines reach the agricultural, grazing and mining regions and the health and pleasure resorts of Colorado and Utah, by way of a north and south line along the eastern foot hills of the Rocky range, crossing the mouths of the great mountain canyons, and by an east and west system from Colorado Springs to Utah.

The New Mexico lines reach the mining, grazing and fruit raising regions, and the health and pleasure resorts of New Mexico, by a north and south line through the Raton, Pecos, Rio Grande and other valleys from Colorado to El Paso, where connection is made with the Mexican Central line through Old Mexico.

The Arizona line reaches the mining and grazing regions of northern Arizona, by an east and west line from New Mexico to California and does most of the transcontinental business of the system.

The Sonora (Mexico) line reaches the mines of southern Arizona, the fruit and grazing regions of northwestern Old Mexico, and the seaboard at Guaymas.

The California lines are confined to the southern half of the state, and are planned to do all sorts of local business and to exchange a trans-continental business with the Arizona line.

The Indian Territory and Texas lines reach the agricultural, grazing and lumber regions of Texas by a north and south line from Kansas to the seaboard at Galveston. Cotton and cattle are the chief products for transportation on this division, though the ocean traffic from Mexico, Central and South America, and even European points, is increasing, and will increase rapidly with the achievement of deep water by the government work in Galveston bay or elsewhere in that vicinity.

The lines west and southwest from St. Louis reach the agricultural, grazing, mining and timber regions of southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, eastern, Indian Territory and northeastern Texas.

The Chicago and Missouri river lines connect the trans-Missouri system, as above described, with the great lakes at Chicago.

In brief, the general plan is of a system with both cast and west and north and south routes to and from the center of traffic.

Four of the general divisions of the present system were not built by the Santa Fe, but were bought. The Atlantic & Pacific road was built under separate management, though owned half by the Santa Fe and half by the St. Louis & San Francisco. The joint agreement for construction was entered into in 1880. The Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe was built between 1873 and 1876, mostly by local energy. Mr. Albert Somerville was president, and General Braxton Bragg, of war fame chief-engineer. It was bought by the Santa Fe under Mr. Strong's management in 1878. The St. Louis & San Francisco and the Colorado Midland roads were bought by the present management. The Colorado Midland was built with English money by Mr. J. J. Hagerman of Colorado Springs.

The building of the Mexican Central Railway from El Paso to the City of Mexico naturally followed the completion of the Santa Fe to El Paso. The Mexican Central was never technically a part of the Santa Fe, but the ownership of the two properties was very much the same for several years. It was expected by Mr. Thomas Nickerson (at one time the president of the two companies) and others who were associated with him in the projection of the Mexican line, that it would be a repetition or continuation of the success of the Santa Fe but they were doomed to disappointment. There were radical differences in the country and in the customs of the people, which had not been fully taken into account. The Mexican property never experienced the financial buoyancy of the Santa Fe and was therefore a severe disappointment to its original owners. But it is now steadily improving and is sure to rank eventually as one of the greatest properties on the continent.

The country immediately tributary to the Santa Fe system constitutes a complete world in itself It is difficult to think of any important requisite to a well balanced civilization wanting in the physical territory of the system. In the Rocky mountain regions are found the resources, advantages and attractions peculiar to the mountainous heart of Europe. Here are the mineral treasures of the continent, the most healthful of climates and the most sublime natural characteristics. From this great central citadel the slopes go gently to the sea. On these slopes every pastoral occupation flourishes. What will not grow in the rich waves of Kansas soil will in the warmer fields of Texas and California and between. If the land of corn and cotton and cattle is in some ways incompetent, the sheltered valleys of the far southwest furnish a full recompense. No section is far distant from all necessary forms of food and fuel and the materials for mechanical arts. Iron, lead, coal and salt in measureless deposits underlie the fertile acres of the great slope from the mountains to the Gulf, the Mississippi and the great lakes. In the giant Rockies, besides the mines, there are productive valleys capable of the support of millions of human beings. The great expanse of coast line means ready access to the products of the sea and ready communication with all parts of the world. The people of this territory are already engaged in practically every pursuit known to civilized man. Products are being intelligently diversified, manufactures are multiplying daily, and wealth is steadily increasing. The teacher and the preacher were never more active and the workers in all lines were never anywhere more capable or more faithful. While an infinite improvement still remains to be achieved, it is yet true that the people are making a progress never before surpassed anywhere in the world.

The financial history of the Santa Fe is a remarkably instructive one. From the time Mr. Peter and his associates took hold to the year 1889, the company really never felt a dangerous financial stringency. To put it differently, there never was a time in that period when there was imminent danger of bankruptcy. There were close economies and many cautious policies. In fact, considering what we now know, much was lost by financial timidity. But there never was a time when the holders of defaulted securities came knocking at the door. The first dividend on the capital stock was paid August 25th 1879.

When trouble finally came, it proved to be just such trouble as had been foretold by both Thomas Nickerson and Mr. William B. Strong. The former said in his annual report in 1874 "We are and must be for a long time without a rival or competitor which can materially interfere with our local business." Mr. Strong said in his annual report in 1883. "What the future plans of the company shall be must largely depend upon the course pursued by its connections and competitors. The assurance may be given that every prudent measure shall be taken to preserve the property in its integrity." From exactly the source hinted at by Mr. Nickerson, and clearly stated by Mr. Strong, the cyclone finally came. The increased expense and the diminished receipts, due to the acts of competitors, brought on a crisis. The stock of the company had come to be considered among the surest on the market and was held by thirteen or fourteen thousand persons, who paid for it probably an average price of one dollar-some having paid as high as one dollar and forty cents. So long as the company was permitted to have full possession of its immediate traffic field, it could and did keep up with its debts and pay dividends steadily. There was no doubt of the honest and intelligent management of the road, and holders were serene. But the day came when the traffic of the company was everywhere slaughtered by competition. The Canadian Pacific, Texas & Pacific, Union Pacific, Northern Pacific, and other lines cut into the trans-continental business of the company. Then the local business of the company was cut into by the heavy new mileage of the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Denver, Texas & Fort Worth, the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis, and other roads. In 1885, 1886 and 1887 the Missouri Pacific alone built 1071 miles of road in the Santa Fe's immediate territory. In the same years the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific road constructed about 1300 miles also in the immediate territory of the Santa Fe.

The result of this paralleling and bisecting process was, first, that the Atchison company found it imperatively necessary to protect itself by building a new trunk line from the Missouri river to Chicago, and many branch lines so located that they would "feather" in towards the main line rather than out towards rival main lines, by which construction fixed charges and operating expenses were greatly increased and, second, that all local rates were cut, particularly at the important points and on all classes of through business. It was natural, therefore, that the company found itself in financial distress—a distress greatly increased by the prevalence of poor crops and the adverse work of various legislatures, railroad commissioners and courts. Its annual fixed charges had come to be over eleven million dollars. An interest payment was approaching. Every effort was made and the money was actually arranged for to tide over the payment. This one danger passed and all might be well but at the last moment a personal quarrel in the board led to a division of strength and consequent failure. The old board virtually abandoned the field and the stock went down to a market price of nearly twenty cents, making a total loss to stockholders, assuming the average cost of their stock to be one dollar, of between fifty and seventy-five million dollars. For the next annual meeting the stockholders sent their proxies to Messrs. Kidder, Peabody & Co., as requested. Messrs. George C. Magoun, John J. McCook and Thomas Baring, with other gentlemen of their selection, were elected directors, and Mr. Magoun became chairman of the board. Mr. Strong left the company and Mr. Allen Manvel became president. Messrs. Magoun, McCook, and Baring are recognized as the authoritative directors of the company. Mr. Marvel at once put into effect the most rigid economies, coupled with the most careful management generally. He paid Mr. Strong the high compliment of retaining practically all of his chief assistants.

The first work of the new board, after a long and careful examination of the property, was to reorganize the finances of the company. This they did by a most remarkable process, at once bold and ingenious, a process largely elaborated by Mr. J. W. Reinhart, the first vice-president of the company.

Under the reorganization plan the company authorized the issue of one hundred and fifty million dollars of one-hundred year four per cent. bonds and eighty million dollars of five per cent. income bonds. The old debt was all replaced by the new securities, so as to reduce the annual fixed charges from $11,157,769.60 to $7,352,390.

Subsequently the company substituted a second mortgage for the eighty million dollars of income bonds, the second mortgage bearing a graduated rate of interest, beginning with two and a half per cent. per annum. The income bondholders preferred a definite mortgage, and the company believed the interest on the incomes would exceed that to be paid on the seconds on the graduated plan. Both sides were, therefore, willing to make the exchange. It will certainly be a long time before so bold a reorganization is again effected so neatly and quietly. By another bold stroke the St. Louis and San Francisco road was bought. This road had a large floating debt, but it was a heavy competitor of the Santa Fe and its full possession enabled the Santa Fe to come nearer holding its other competitors' level, and at the same time procured for it the outstanding half of the Atlantic and Pacific stock. The purchase of the Colorado Midland was a transaction of like character.

The legal history of the system is also a remarkable one. Ninety-five corporations which have at one time or another played an important part in the history of the road are dead and inactive by abandonment or absorption. There are now seventy-nine active companies. The manipulation and amalgamation of this vast number of properties has been done chiefly in a legal way by Mr. George R. Peck of Kansas, who entered the service of the system in 1878. To him, chiefly, has fallen the task of welding together this vast number of corporations which have from time to time been merged into the present system, or set to revolving in close connection with it.

Kansas is the legal home of the Santa Fe, and the headquarters building of the company stands within a stone's throw of the capitol building of the state. Anti-railroad agitators have a happy little joke, oft repeated, about the seat of government being in the railroad building instead of in the state building. As a matter of fact, the Santa Fe management has always endeavored not to be a political stumbling-block. Mr. Strong and Mr. Peck assisted in establishing a board of railroad commissioners, when the measure might have been deferred, and the company has in every way sought to obey the law and encourage sound legislation. The company has believed that this policy would in the end earn the most money. A similar policy has been pursued with reference to employees. Labor strikes and troubles have been very infrequent and of little consequence. Mr. Edward Wilder, the treasurer, once paid all the employees of the line with currency, carried in a satchel. Now there are over 35,000 men on the rolls. Harmony between managers and employees has been in every way encouraged. For years a reading-room and library system was maintained along the line, and a splendid hospital service is now in effect.

Under an act of congress of 1863, supplemented by an act of the Kansas legislature in 1864, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe company received a grant of land, approximating 3,000,000 acres. The grant comprised alternate sections in a ten-mile strip on each side of the main line of the road through Kansas. Wherever one of these alternate sections had been pre-empted by a settler, the company was indemnified by the right to take land in the second ten-mile strip on each side of the road. The taking of this land was coupled with a large number of conditions as to price, method of selling, etc., and the lands were all taxable. The sale of this land was concluded two or three years ago, except as to such pieces of land as were sold on contract and have since been turned back to the company by forfeiture. This amounts to a very small acreage. The lands were sold at an average of about five dollars per acre and netted the company something like five million dollars but from this five million dollars should be deducted all free transportation, advertising and other passenger department expenses which related to land sales, which leaves the land grant account showing not over three millions to the good, while some call it approximately even. That is to say, properly speaking, there was no profit in the transaction, except as it came indirectly by what was made from the railroad. The railroad, of course, could not have existed except for the presence of this land as an attraction to settlers, and it could not have been built when it was if the possession of the land had not enabled the company to borrow money with which to build the road. The taxes on this railroad land grant built schoolhouses and court-houses from one end of Kansas to the other. There are very many instances where one section of land was taxed to build three school-houses, this being accomplished by changing school-districts so as to bring the given section of land under the necessity of contributing to the building of the three separate houses. There is a distinct line of demarkation between the school-houses and courthouses within the limits of the railroad land grant and those outside of that limit, the comparison being in favor of the railroad buildings. The people seem to have been universally willing that the railroad lands should pay for first-class improvements. For many years, Reno county, for instance, received something like $250,000 in taxes from the land grant.

The lands granted to the company in Kansas, on which they netted about one dollar per acre, were twice exposed to terrible devastations which materially reduced the benefit the company would have received from them. In 1874 the sale of the grant was absolutely stopped, by reason of the plague of grasshoppers that visited the state. There was no real recovery from this until the effect of the Centennial Exposition began to be felt in 1876 and1877. Again, in 1879 and 1880 there was a very dry time, which gave the sale of the grant another set-back. On both of these occasions many thousands of people were transported free from their prairie homes to their original homes in the east. Seed grain was furnished all who would use it, and vast amounts of help were otherwise contributed by the company in the task of tiding over the hard times.

The building of the Santa Fe through Kansas was not interrupted by either natural or personal interference. "The end of the track," and many stations which had once been at the end of the track were for a long time very disorderly towns. Murder and the milder but more interesting crimes were of constant occurrence. Cowboys of the bad kind, Indians, railroad construction stragglers, and hard characters generally were at first largely in the majority in most of the Santa Fe villages and made them more painfully active than they ever will be again. Judge Lynch was a popular dispenser of justice, and without his help the regular courts could hardly have kept up their work. But when the road crossed the Kansas line new things were encountered. Mr. Strong, then the vice-president and general manager, was full of fire and fight, and wanted to take the Rocky mountain country by storm. Only two obstacles were in his way. One was the ultra conservative attitude of Mr. Thomas Nickerson, the president, who was an able financier, but not a practical railroad man, and the other was the presence in Colorado of the Denver & Rio Grande railway, a narrow-gauge line extending from Denver to Pueblo, with branches south and west from the latter point. Mr. Strong knew the financial weakness of the "little road," as Colorado people affectionately called it, and was eager to push his lines into its territory until a satisfactory purchase could be made. But Mr. Nickerson refused to let anything of the kind be done, and protracted negotiations were entered into for a lease. Finally a lease was consummated, Mr. Nickerson personally supervising the preparation of the papers. This lease was made on the 19th of October 1878, and the road came into the possession of the Santa Fe on the 14th of December of the same year. The operation of the road under this lease was continued until June 11th 1879, when the Rio Grande repudiated the lease and by physical force regained possession of the road. The United States court restored the property to the Santa Fe on the 16th of July 1879, and on the 14th of the following August put it in the hands of a receiver. Mr. Strong matured plans to take the road from the receiver, but Mr. Nickerson would not cooperate.

Meantime work had been pushed on the Santa Fe line to Leadville. The grade was practically completed and twenty-two miles of the track laid when, on July 14th 1879, work was stopped by an injunction granted at the request of the Rio Grande people. Prior to this the Santa Fe had achieved a victory over the Rio Grande at Raton mountain Mr. Strong had been overland to Santa Fe and secured the legislation he needed under which to build through the territory. He demanded authority of Mr. Nickerson to build into New Mexico at once. Mr. Nickerson refused, but was immediately met by a disagreeable alternative presented by Mr. Strong, which caused him to name a sum of money which could be expended. Mr. Strong without delay ordered Chief-engineer Robinson to make a location through Raton canyon into New Mexico. Mr. Robinson and Mr. McMurtrie, chief-engineer of the Rio Grande, reached Trinidad the same night. McMurtie's men went to bed. Mr. Robinson pressed on and located his line that night on the north side of Raton mountain, and at four o'clock next morning began the location, of his line on the south side of the mountain. Thirty minutes after, Mr. McMurtie appeared on the south side of the mountain, too late. Had McMurtie secured this pass the Santa Fe road might have remained a small affair, as the narrow-gauge of the Rio Grande would have enabled it to traverse New Mexico quickly and cheaply. The Santa Fe constructed its "switchback" over the Raton about Christmas 1889. Afterwards the switchback was abandoned for a tunnel previously mentioned cut through the solid rock.

Between the time when the Rio Grande repudiated its lease and the time that that the receivership ended all controversy—all in the first half of I879—occurred the "Rio Grande war." This was war indeed. From three to five hundred men on each side were armed and in the field in true soldier fashion. The officers on both sides—Mr. Strong and Mr. Robinson for the Santa Fe, and Mr. Palmer and Mr. McMurtie for the Rio Grande—were not only combatants in the field, but were also fighting a legal war. To be a "magnate" at that time and place meant to be half the time a rioter and the other half a fugitive. To be a judge was to be in more than a physician's danger of being wanted at any hour of the day or night. The newspapers were spouting fire with every issue. Colorado was never so excited. Finally the main body of the Santa Fe forces was surrounded in the round house at Pueblo and made to surrender. The thrilling occurrences of this busy half year would make a long story indeed.

The romance involved in the history of the Santa Fe system can scarcely be more than hinted at here. There can never be again in this country such a life as was led by President Strong. Strictly within the bounds of civil life, he was yet as free as Columbus to discover new commercial worlds, declare war and wage it, organize and build communities, overturn political powers of long standing, replace old civilizations with new-and do all this asking no men's leave, save those whose money was to be risked, or those, few in number, whose tasks were somewhat like his and in the same field. Under his administration of the affairs of the Santa Fe Kansas was mostly settled, Colorado was developed, New Mexico was transformed, Arizona was awakened, Texas, California and Mexico were bound together, by way of Kansas, and all were guyed to the great western metropolis, Chicago. Towns were located and built, cities were brought into being, mines were opened, millions of people were moved, wars were waged and customs and precedents established in commerce and law. All this was done with one man as the chief arbitrator of many destinies. Law has succeeded much of this individual power. Legislative bodies, courts, government commissions, commercial organizations, labor organizations-all these have now come on the scene and to Mr. Manvel has fallen the task of managing this vast property, in spite of these thwarting and throttling combinations. Thus the romance in the business has largely gone. It went with the Indian, who once burned station-houses and murdered settlers along the line with the Colorado and Kansas grasshoppers that stopped the very trains on the track with the drought that drove the settlers back and threatened ruin to the whole new field of commerce. It went with the struggle for the valuable mountain passes and the richest valleys with the riot of new discoveries in the mineral world—the sudden upturning of precious metals, and the incredible incoming of eager fortune hunters from every quarter of the globe. It went with the terrors of the border, the great wave of hardened and reckless humanity which precedes rigid civilization with the countless herds of buffalo and the prairie dog and the coyote. It went with the unorganized political activity which naturally gathered about so great a nucleus of power as the railway. It went with the advent of the now oninipresent hand of law and legal resistance with the revelations of the printed sheet, the decorated car, and the great centennial exhibit. It went with the passing of many of the rare, famous or notorious men of the day, the men who made the history of their times: with the end of the great gulf stream of humanity that poured out of the old world into the new with the flinging open of Oklahoma. It went with the bold break for liberty, in rushing the new trunk line from the Missouri river to the great lakes. It went in all these ways and others, and it went to stay. The remnant is a vast business machine, the management of which will continue as heretofore to tax the strongest men to the limit of their endurance—and sometimes beyond.


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad - History

Another railroad station, that of the California Southern Railroad Company built in 1887, previously stood on this site. It was demolished in 1915 to make way for the Bakewell and Brown design. Bakewell and Brown, perhaps the most prestigious Beaux-Arts architectural firm of its time, did not design a large number of buildings in Southern CA. San Diego's Union Station and Pasadena's City Hall #2 (1927), were two of their most prominent works here.

Building History

Opening on 03/08/1915, the $300,0000 Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (ATSF) railroad depot welcomed visitors to San Diego's Panama-California Exposition that opened 01/01/1915 and lasted until 01/01/1917.

The southern portion of the depot contained the passenger and ticketing areas, while the northern part housed the baggage building.

The City of San Diego has re-used the southern portion of this Spanish Colonial Revival train station as part of its own light rail system. The northern portion was provided to the Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, for use as a downtown gallery. The New York architectural firm of Gluckman Mayner Architects supervised the alteration of the former baggage building into gallery space for the museum.


Map Map showing the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé Rail Road and its auxiliary roads in the state of Kansas.

The maps in the Map Collections materials were either published prior to 1922, produced by the United States government, or both (see catalogue records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source). The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for educational and research purposes and is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17 of the United States Code) or any other restrictions in the Map Collection materials.

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Credit Line: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


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